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Poverty is an issue that requires a multi-dimensionsional response. Poverty is caused by economic factors such as low income and expenditure, but is also caused by social and political factors as exemplified by lack of access to basic social services such as education and public health and lack of opportunities to participate in the decision-making process. Gender inequality persists in many aspects such as economy, society and politics.

It is said that among the 1. Therefore, in formulating policies and projects aiming at poverty reduction, Japan will give consideration to improve women's access to a variety of services and welfare opportunities and promote participation of women in the decision making process so that women and men can equally benefit. With respect to education, Japan will support; equal access to education through creation of social and economic environment which enables girls to go to schools and through distance learning, elimination of gender disparity in literacy rate, enrolment rate especially, in primary and secondary education and completion rate; establishment of gender- sensitive education-related law, institution and educational policies; development of educational software curriculum, teaching material etc.

With respect to agriculture, forestry, fishery, and rural development, the role of women in production tends to be underestimated and there are problems of women not being able to utilise productive resources because they do not have rights to own or inherit land.

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Moreover, depending on the region, the role of women in agriculture increases further due to a decrease in male workforce that result from migration to cities or conflicts. Based on the recognition of women's role in rural development as well as the different purpose for which men and women engage in agricultural production needs, Japan will support; establishment of facilities and extension of cultivation technology that contributes to reducing agricultural workload of women; dissemination of technology to raise women's incomes such as livestock husbandry and cultivation; participation of women in food-processing industry; strengthening women's producer associations and their management; training for the use of pesticides and chemical fertilizer.

In addition, inhabitants in the rural areas in developing countries depend their livelihoods on natural resources such as spring water, rivers and forests, and in many cases fetching water and collecting fuel wood is assumed to be the role of women. Japan will support measures to conserve natural resources as well as to reduce such work burden of women. Economic policies and development of socio-economic infrastructure for achieving sustainable growth may affect men and women differently. Therefore, if such policies or projects are planned and implemented without incorporating a gender perspective, it may not bring benefits to women, and in some cases it may even worsen the situation of women.

It has also become evident that infrastructure projects will become more effective and efficient by accurately analysing and taking into account the different living conditions and needs of women and men at the planning stage of projects. For these reasons, Japan will give consideration in the planning stage to have women and men participate equally in the decision making process and to have the benefits of its cooperation be shared equally by women and men.

In the area of infrastructure development, Japan will promote planning and implementation based on a gender perspective, and will take necessary measures to ensure that women benefit.

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For instance, consideration will be given to gender training for people involved in projects and expanding women's employment opportunities. In the area of economy and labour, women are more likely to engage in the informal sector or work under part-time employment.


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Women's unpaid work in the community or household are not included in economic statistics. With respect to environment, rural people in developing countries tend to depend on natural resources for their livelihood and have daily contact with nature through such activities as collection of firewood or medicinal plants. Therefore, in order to conserve the natural environment, Japan will provide training on management of natural resources and environment protection, promote measures to protect the environment that give consideration to women's roles e. With respect to human rights and violence, Japan will support efforts of developing countries to establish legislation as well as to achieve substantive gender equality based on the "Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women" and other international human rights documents.

Issues regarding violence against women which has its background in traditional gender stereotypes, and violence or human rights abuse against migrant women will also be addressed. Animal fans are in luck as creatures like oysters, otters, flamingos and guide dogs have been added to the keyboard. Apple has been pushing towards creating more inclusive emojis so the latest update features wheelchair, hearing aid and artificial limb emojis amongst others.

There is also more food options including an onion, a waffle, a plate of falafel, butter and an ice cube. On the more random side of things, you've got a stethoscope, a yawning face, a shaving razor and some new shape colours to be play with. One of the most anticipated emojis in the update comes in the form of a new way to select individual skin tones in the holding hands emoji.

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Users just have to hold down the icon and then will be given skin colour options, firstly for the emoji person on the left and then for the one on the right. The perception seems not to be changing along with the increase in the numbers of women in the military. This is accentuated when women are sent to combat branches, like the infantry, to fill gender quotas, instead of being selected for their physical abilities.

Research shows that women need to not only meet the physical standards to be accepted as equals, but also assimilate masculine values embedded in military culture.

In so doing, they typically need to suppress feminine traits like being compassionate, sensitive, softhearted, conciliatory and peace-loving. Such traits are neither valued, nor promoted in the military. They run counter to masculine traits embodied in military culture, such as dominance, aggression and toughness. For women to be judged as respected soldiers, they have to dilute or suppress their femininity to conform to existing rules and the masculine culture of the military. To fit in, they typically shape their gender identities according to the masculine image of the combat soldier.

They mimic the bodily and discursive practices of men.


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  • This runs counter to the ideals of gender mainstreaming initiatives. These call for more women in the military, based on the contribution they can make as a result of their femininities.

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    Also, for the need to infuse alternative values into the organisation. The argument is that women can contribute something different by bringing different skills sets and perspectives to the military. These can enhance operational success. They can bring about security sector reforms in a more gender-sensitive way.

    Yet, research on the South African National Defence Force shows that women regard their contribution to peacekeeping operations far more highly than men do. Philippine soldiers joining a UN peacekeeping mission in Haiti.

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    These stretch beyond issues of physical capability and cultural aspects, and relate more specifically to issues of sexuality and patriarchy embodied in the structures, cultures and practices of the military. Women also have to face different degrees of gender and sexual harassment. The consequence is that even those who reach the top are not willing to change the rules.

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    What research in South Africa and elsewhere has shown is that militarised masculinities remain embodied in military culture. Few military women are prepared to adopt an assertive feminist stance to bring about a military culture that is more appreciative of gender differences. This cannot be achieved where femininity is undervalued and suppressed. Create Account Lost Your Password? Toggle navigation Toggle profile.

    Create Account. National Military women need to trouble gender relations and roles for peace's sake The Conversation 08 Aug