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Seller Inventory I Goffman used the method of the ideal type to discern characteristics common to total institutions. He enumerated four general qualities of total institutions. Goffman listed these as follows: First, all aspects of life are conducted in the same place and under the same single authority. Finally, the various enforced activities are brought together into a single rational plan purportedly designed to fulfill the official aims of the institution p.
These characteristics are not common to any one type of total institution.
Omar V. Garrison
Instead, these qualities vary in the extent to which they apply to the different institutional forms. Two main social groups are found in total institutions.
Inmates spend their daily lives inside the institutions while staff work there and remain part of the conventional sociocultural order. Thus, the barriers within total Life Inside Prison 39 institutions are both physical and social. The social world in which inmates live reflects these ever-present barriers and tensions.
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The inmate world involves a distinct social organization that is at odds with sociocultural sub-systems on the outside. Goffman made the following insightful comment: Total institutions do not substitute their own unique culture for something already formed They create and maintain a particular kind of tension between the home world and the institutional world and use this persistent tension as strategic leverage in the management of men p. Total institutions are juxtaposed against conventional society and function as constant reminders of the relations and luxuries that inmates are denied inside prison.
In this sense, the inmate subculture stands independent of the dominant sociocultural order. The Inmate Subculture The inmate subculture is a unique, subterranean social order inside prison. Clemmer observed that the particular elements of this special sociocultural sub-system include the following: habits, behavior systems, traditions, history, customs, folkways, codes, the laws and rules which guide the inmates and their ideas, opinions and attitudes toward or against homos, family, education, work, recreations, government, prisons, police, judges, other inmates, wardens, ministers, doctors, guards, ballplayers, clubs, guns, cells, buckets, gravy, beans, walls, lamps, rain, clouds, clothes, machinery, hammers, rocks, caps, bibles, books, radios, monies, stealing, murder, rape, sex, love, honesty, martyrdom, and so on pp.
The inmate subculture involves a system of power and interchange, albeit illegitimate, that includes specific normative expectations, values, and behavioral outcomes. Ohlin offered a particularly insightful description of the inmate code as follows: The [inmate] code represents an organization of criminal values in clearcut opposition to the values of conventional society, and to prison officials as representatives of that society.
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The main tenet of this code forbids any type of supportive or nonexploitative liaison with prison officials. It seeks to confer status and prestige on those inmates who stand most clearly in opposition to the administration p. Pollock has called it the Magna Carta of the prisoner sociocultural sub-system. The inmate code also forms the basis for the values and behaviors that are indicative of the prisoner subculture. Wilder has noted that the primary values of the convict subculture were group loyalty, violence, strength, and sexual proclivity.
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Ohlin described these values and beliefs as follows: These criminal beliefs and attitudes place a high premium on physical violence and strength, on exploitative sex relations, and predatory attitudes toward money and property. They place a strong emphasis on in-group loyalty and solidarity and on aggressive and exploitative relations with conventionally oriented out-groups p.
Of course, not every prisoner is actively involved in the inmate subculture. However, most are aware of the inmate code and respect it. This normative system develops from the perspectives of individuals who share similar problems of adjustment.